Welcome to the ENERI research ethics and research integrity manual. Before you lies, of perhaps more realistically: is displayed, a resource for both researchers designing or attempting to design research, as well as professionals evaluation that research. True to the ENERI programme, this resource is neither limited to research ethics, nor to research integrity. We do however, recognise that the list of issues, however ordered or prioritised, identified as being part of either, requires some type of label. That label exists to help legitimise them as relevant and significant normative elements of research, as well as allows readers to actually find what they are looking for.
This does not mean that the boundary between research integrity and research ethics is not fuzzy at best, and that ongoing debate on how to organise both normative frameworks collaboratively is best targeted to help actual practices. Recognising that such debates require flexibility and resources that can grow and shape themselves (obviously with all the help it, and we, can get) to be of the greatest value for that debate, we chose to design this living manual.
This e-manual is a living resource, inviting engagement rather than consumption. It contains no technical or technocratic instruction, but rather seeks to instill deliberation around issues of research ethics (RE) and research integrity (RI). While we have included scores of links to a diverse array of RE and RI prescriptions, we do not seek to harmonize them. Rather, we intend to allow the reader to access, assess, weigh and judge them for themselves, seeking merit where she deems fit.
A living manual requires curation, care and contribution. These three actions initiated with the authors but cannot be limited to them, to facilitate it from reaching the largest possible relevance. This means that cases may be added in section 3, and changes, expansions, additions and more more can be suggested and ultimately made, to sections 1 (RI) and 2 (RE).
Table of Contents
Introduction: the manual to the manual
1. Research Integrity
1.1. Conceptual issues
1.1.1. The Researcher in Society - towards the “virtuous researcher”
1.1.2 Research, Evidence and Truth?
1.1.3 Detrimental Research Practices and Research Misconduct
1.1.4 Social Responsibility
1.2. Practical Issues
1.2.2. Reviewing Peer Review: Problems and Potential
1.2.3. Bibliometrics Approach (The Matrix of Metrics)
1.2.5. Conflicts of interest
2.1 Conceptual Issues
2.1.1. What are the “ethics” in Research Ethics, and how should they be handled by RECs?
2.1.2. Autonomy and Solidarity - the struggle of the public interest
2.1.3. The Gold Standard of Participant Protection - Anonymisation and Informed Consent
2.2. Procedural Issues
2.2.1. Representing Local Sensitivities in RECs
2.3. Practical Issues
2.3.1. Capacity and Vulnerability in research
2.3.2. Participant Benefit, Paternalism, and Therapeutic Misconception
2.3.3. RECs and the Human Rights Agenda
2.3.5. Data Protection
2.3.6. The Regulation of Clinical Trials in Europe
2.3.7. Intellectual Property and the concept of property