Library Element Book and Thesis

Open Science, the challenge of transparency

Uploaded by RRI Tools on 28 March 2019

Open Science, the challenge of transparency. By Bernard Rentier. Preface by Philippe Busquin. Académie royale de Belgique. 2019

A new way of conceiving scientific research, Open Science, was born with the computer revolution. In the wake of Open Access (free public access to the results of publicly funded research), it accompanies the great ideal of transparency that is now invading all spheres of life in society. This book describes its origins, perspectives and objectives. It also reveals the obstacles and barriers due to private profit and academic conservatism.




Foreword of the English edition 

CHAPTER 1 — Towards a new way of transmitting knowledge 

  • The origins 
  • A tenacious tradition 
  • The third turning point 
  • Conclusion: an obsolete practice 

CHAPTER 2 — Towards a true sharing of knowledge 

  • Science as a common good? 
  • Everything comes at a price 
  • Science as a public good? 
  • Conclusion: access to knowledge is definitely a fundamental right 

CHAPTER 3 — Towards free access to publications 

  • The epic of open access 
  • What exactly is open access: open or libre 
  • More than a technique, open access is a cause 
  • Ignorance and waste 
  • The usurpators: a dangerous inversion of the model 
  • Initiatives towards independance 
  • But where are the obstacles? 
  • Characteristics of the several variations on the theme of open access 64
  • In practice, what can we do? 
  • To the barricades! 
  • Conclusion: an unequal arm wrestling match 

CHAPTER 4  — Towards a more transparent Science 

  • Open science 
  • Open citations 
  • Open data 
  • Open source software 
  • Open peer review 
  • Citizen science 
  • Open education 
  • Conclusion: open science, a broad concept 

CHAPTER 5 — Towards a more ethical research 

  • Strict principles 

CHAPTER 6 — Towards a fairer assessment 

  • The incentives 
  • The multi-criteria evaluation 

CHAPTER 7 — Tomorrow, the Research… 

  • A forward-looking vision 
  • The struggle goes on 
  • And what about europe? 
  • A light at the end of the tunnel? Plan s 
  • What can be done now? 
  • Conclusion: a noble purpose 

Appendix 1 - Comparison of the different publication variants

Appendix 2 - What is a Creative Commons license?

Appendix 3 - Myths and realities of the mandatory Green Open Access



Bernard Rentier is a Belgian virologist, associate member of the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium, in the «Technology and Society» class. He is First Vice-President of the Belgian Federal Council of Science Policy.

After an international career as a researcher, he became Vice-rector (1997-2005) and then Rector of the University of Liège (2005-2014).

He has established an institutional repository for scientific publications with a mandate that has become a famed Open Access model and he is currently working to promote Open Science in all its implications for research and researchers.


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