This report presents a series of identified trends related to the rise of a new global middle class, a growing and ageing population, employment and the changing labour market, evolving patterns and impacts of migration, connected societies and individual empowerment. Many of these trends are uncertain and their very direction and magnitude depend on the future course of exogenous drivers beyond the control of decision makers. Each of these trends, in turn, could have various types of consequences for the European Union’s long-term landscape. At the risk of simplification, we summarise these trends, drivers and outcomes in Figure E.1. The consequences for the EU have been grouped under four topics:
rising inequality and more vulnerable groups
the consequences of a new global consumer class
adapting to a new demographic reality
opportunities for individual empowerment but risks of a divide.