The MASIS expert group was asked to examine the role of science in society, basing this on analyses of different trends and challenges, and also taking into account specific areas as visible in the action lines of 'Science in Society' of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). What are cutting ‐ edge issues and what are challenging futures? Europe is undergoing changes, and not only in size and composition. This has also brought new challenges for science in society, not least because it has been given a significant role in the development of EU in the Lisbon Strategy of 2000 and the Vision 2020 of the European Research Area (Council of the EU 2009). Citizens have an increasing stake in the European Research Area and in science in Europe in general. This Report examines challenges and cross‐cutting issues from a European perspective.